Tuesday, February 04, 2014

Raise your glass to the hard working people
Lets drink to the uncounted heads
Lets think of the wavering millions
Who need leaders but get gamblers instead

Lets drink to the hard working people
Lets drink to the lowly of birth
Raise your glass to the good and the evil
Lets drink to the salt of the earth
(M. Jagger/ K. Richards) 


The story of the Civil War in Florida is one long drawn out drama characterized by deprivation and tragedy. Less than a month after secession and two months before the war even started, the New York Times reported massive inflation in Florida and that the price of slaves had dropped by one half in the past six months. Small town businesses were already closing and poor people were going hungry. 

On Friday, April 19, 1861, only one week after the first shell was fired on Ft. Sumter, President Abraham Lincoln issued a "Proclamation of Blockade Against Southern Ports". By June, the blockade had already begun at Apalachicola and September saw the first naval action of the Civil War occur in Pensacola harbor. From the very beginning of this awful war, anyone who thought they could sail out of St. Andrews Bay in their sloop or schooner in hopes of going fishing or engaging in the coastal trade was in for a rude awakening. The Civil War came to Northwest Florida coast right from the very get-go.

You know there's a lot of truth to that old expression,"You don't know what you got 'til it's gone."

How many times have you heard someone exclaim, "I can't imagine living down here in the summer without AC!" Well, imagine living down here without refrigeration as well. There was one main way to preserve food in 1861 and that was with salt and President Lincoln's naval blockade had an immediate impact on salt. The people of Florida at the time of the Civil War probably used more salt per capita than any group of people who have ever walked on the face of the earth. No one worried about extracting it from seawater. That was too much trouble. Hell, you could get a 200 pound sack for just about nothing on the docks at Apalach. It came over as ballast from the European ships loading cotton. You may not have been keeping up with the news in 1862 but suddenly you noticed something truly strange and unusual. There was no salt.

It got really, really bad in a world without salt. No one realized how valuable and vital salt was until it was gone.Salt served as preservative, disinfectant, seasoning and fertilizer. When it got to be hog killing time in the autumn of 1862, there was no reason to kill the hogs because you couldn't cure the meat. The Confederacy started making wooden soles for canvas shoes because without salt no one could tan leather. Livestock suffered. Without salt, the Confederate army couldn't make disinfectant to clean the wounds of the injured.

Suddenly a new industry designed to extract salt from sea water popped up on the shallow, secluded shores of St. Andrews Bay. By 1862, hundreds of salt works dotted the landscape from Phillips Inlet all the way to California Bayou in East Bay. The Confederate government exempted salt workers from conscription so St. Andrews Bay suddenly had a huge influx of draft dodgers and in a world at war even the draft dodger had to prove he was "worth his salt." The only way you could keep your draft exemption was to produce over 1000 pounds of salt a day. You had everything from "Mom and Pop" operations with a single kettle to huge factories over a hundred feet long with a hundred kettles boiling 24 hours a day, seven days a week. Pretty soon as many as 2500 men were out in the salt marsh digging brine wells, chopping wood, stoking fires, dipping boiling brine and making salt in the St. Andrews Bay area and 4000 wagons pulled by teams of mules and oxen were employed in moving the product north to Eufaula so the railroad could transport it to Montgomery and from there to a salt hungry Confederacy.

It didn't take long for the Gulf Blockading Squadron headquartered at Pensacola's Ft. Pickens to target this wartime industry for destruction. Many of these military missions are described in the official military records and the record reveals that St. Andrews Bay experienced repeated amphibious search and destroy missions from the U.S. Navy's sailors and marines from September of 1862 until February of 1865.  The blockading squadron made up mainly of gunboats constructed from sidewheel steamers and bark rigged clipper ships built their naval blockade station, barracks, wharf, refugee camp, prison and cemetery on Hurricane Island, the barrier island that once existed at the mouth of the channel entering St. Andrews Bay. John A. Burgess in his 1986 book, SAND IN MY SHOES, uses a  June 1985 Panama City News-Herald column by Marlene Womack and concludes from her information that by 1934 all traces of Hurricane Island disappeared underneath the waters of the Gulf but that during the Civil War the island existed "in the open channel approximately one mile east south-east of the present day land's end (the eastern tip of today's Sand Island)." In 2013, the former land's end of Shell Island would now be a portion of Tyndall Beach. 

The purpose of this article is not to chronicle the merciless and persistent destruction which the salt makers of St. Andrews Bay experienced from the U.S. Navy but to describe the industrial plants which the Union was unable to exterminate and which, like the mythical Phoenix, arose from the ashes as fast as the navy could demolish them.

Thanks to an aging matron from Tallahassee who decided to publish her Civil War diaries in 1925, we have a contemporary description of one of the small "Mom and Pop" operations which was built on Apalachee Bay east of St. Andrews. For our purposes this diary entry best captures life at a typical single syrup kettle Gulf Coast salt works. 

October 27th, 1863.—We went to the salt works today and, though I am tired and dirty and have no good place to write, I am going to try to tell you about it.
A year ago salt began to get scarce but the people only had to economize in its use, but soon there was no salt and then Father got Cousin Joe Bradford to come down from Georgia and take charge of some salt works he was having installed on the coast. He had plenty of hands from the plantation but they had to have an intelligent head and then, too, it is a rather dangerous place to work, for the Yankee gunboats can get very near the coast and they may try shelling the works.
Though they have been in operation quite awhile this is my first visit. Father brought us with him and we will stay three days, so he can see just how they are getting on. We are to sleep in a tent, on a ticking filled with pine straw. It will be a novel experience.
I am so interested in seeing the salt made from the water. The great big sugar kettles are filled full of water and fires made beneath the kettles. They are a long time heating up and then they boil merrily. Ben and Tup and Sam keep the fires going, for they must not cool down the least little bit. A white foam comes at first and then the dirtiest scum you ever saw bubbles and dances over the surface, as the water boils away it seems to get thicker and thicker, at last only a wet mass of what looks like sand remains. This they spread on smooth oaken planks to dry. In bright weather the sun does the rest of the work of evaporation, but if the weather is bad fires are made just outside of a long, low shelter, where the planks are placed on blocks of wood. The shelter keeps off the rain and the fires give out heat enough to carry on the evaporation. The salt finished in fair weather is much whiter and nicer in every way than that dried in bad weather, but this dark salt is used to salt meat or to pickle pork. I think it is fine of Father to do all this. It is very troublesome and it takes nine men to do the work, besides Cousin Joe’s time; and Father does not get any pay whatever for the salt he makes.
We expected to have a grand time swimming and fishing. We are both good swimmers, but Father and Cousin Joe will not allow us to go outside of this little cove. Yankee gun-boats have been sighted once lately and there is no knowing when the salt works may be attacked.
Even though we may not have a picture of the Confederate government salt works on St. Andrews Bay, the largest in the entire state of Florida, we do have a Harper’s Weekly engraving of a large salt works near Port St. Joe that was attacked by the U.S.S. Kingfisher in September of 1862. From this image along with descriptions of large salt works of the time, we may gain an idea of how what was called the salt block was constructed. Like an old time wood stove, the works had oven doors with a fi re box at one end and a chimney at the other. This created a draft that drew the fl ame, heat and smoke to the chimney and heated the double row of iron kettles, basins or tanks that rested on open- ings in the masonry foundation. Old steamboat and sawmill boilers, coastal channel buoys and anything else made of iron that could be split into reservoirs for brine along with syrup kettles were mounted in a double line along the brick and limestone rock foundation of the structure. A white saline vapor rose from the boilers and was professed to be a cure for respiratory diseases but this was dangerous work. Sleeping in tents located in a mosquito infested salt marsh, constant one hundred degree temperatures, boiling brine and blazing ovens have their hazards. Huge ladles were used to dip the crystallizing salt out of the cooling brine and it was placed in split oak or wicker baskets hung above the boilers to drain. The salt was then thrown onto oak boards on the fl oor of sheds built on both sides along the entire length of the furnace. The kettles boiled down about three times every 24 hours and work went on day and night for about a week when the entire operation had to be shut down for a clean out of the incrust- ed scale called pan stone that accumulated on the bottom of the pans and interfered with the transmission of heat. This was considered the worst job in the entire process.
The heart and soul of the operation was the reservoir of brine which fed the entire salt works. This is the part we know little about. The pumps, gutters, pipes and aqueducts used to supply the salt block are a mystery as well as the reservoir, basin or well that was the source of the brine. On the Bon Secour River in Alabama, brine wells were dug above the reach of the high tide. These 12 foot by 12 foot pits were about 10 feet deep and were built like inverted pyramids with the sides made of squared logs narrowing down to the bottom which prevented the pit from fi lling in with sand. The brine seeped in through the loosely placed timbers and, brine being heavier than the fresh water, it sank to the bottom of the pit. On St. Andrews Bay, basins may have been built where the brine was allowed to stand for a few days and concentrated before being pumped or dumped into the iron tanks of the salt block.
Ella Lonn, a Goucher College professor from Baltimore, who wrote the classic book, SALT AS A FACTOR IN THE CONFEDERACY, stated about St. Andrews Bay, “Nowhere perhaps was a greater persistence manifested than in St. Andrews Bay in rebuilding the works so continually destroyed by the Federal fleet. It is diffi cult to explain whence the Richmond authorities found the means and as- sembled the materials for this really remarkable feat.”
Professor Lonn also does a great job of describing how the scarcity of this commodity condensed into a microcosm all the frustrations of the Confederacy and gave rise to this early St. Andrews enterprise,” It is only when a prime necessity thrusts itself upon public attention by its absence that a person ceases to take it for granted. Only when he no longer has it, does he realize what an important ingredient for his palate and digestion is plain, ordinary salt, necessary alike for man and beast.”

Thursday, December 05, 2013

Tiger Jack: All right. Before we lose him again, let's get Wyker on here, O.K. 
Johnny, how you doing, man? We keep losing you. Hope you can hang on for a few minutes. We got Wilbur Walton in the studio with us this morning. 

Wilbur: Hey, Johnny. 

Wyker: Yeah, I knew Wilbur back before he even started singing when he was a temp at Sigma Nu and he was friends with a buddy of mine named Jerry Sailor that later went on to sing with the Mark 5 up in Muscle Shoals and he died a few years age, I talked to Wilbur about a year ago on the phone and he probably gets the same thing I get every time he runs into an old friend. They say," Man, are you still alive? We thought you'd be the first to go."  I'm 63 and just got through raising and home schooling a 17 yr. old daughter and a 20 yr. old son and we've got an international net radio station on line. You can go to (URL deleted) ...that stands for Mighty Field of Vision Radio and we're actually trying to get a federal grant because you know now people don't have D.J.s like Tiger Jack that are heads up and hands on and that can break a local record like when we were freshmen in college in 1965, I got Johnny Townsend to sing with my band. He later went on to do SMOKE FROM A DISTANT FIRE and Tippy Armstrong came to play guitar with us and I found out in about two seconds I couldn't play guitar in the same band with Tippy and I had a choice of either getting thrown out of my own band or learning how to play saxophone within two weeks, on a trumpet within two weeks and so I blew till my lips bled. My... 

Tiger Jack: Wyker is the guy responsible for, I don't know if he's ever heard this story before, but he's the guy responsible for putting TIGER JACK on me. Wyker used to... I'm sure you don't remember this, but you used to call me in the middle of the night and get me to play records then you would tape 'em so that the band could learn 'em. Y'all were the Mag 7 then. 

Wyker: Yeah. 

Tiger Jack: And one night, I used to like to lift a few cool ones before I come in, you know what I'm saying, and this particular night there'd been a few too many and Wyker called up and said, "Boy, you're roaring like a TIGER tonight!" and that's kinda evolved into Tiger Jack later on so... 

Wyker: I'd also like to say I'm glad to hear Buddy Buie's well and doing good. I've had a few surgurys myself; a ligament transplant in my right shoulder a few years ago from a motorcycle wreck and days and I broke Sail Cat up when Motorcycle Mama was about 18 in the charts and I was living in Hollywood and I said, "I got to get out of here before they find a way how to get my BMI songwriter's money." so I bought the rest of the guys a plane ticket back to Alabama and I drove my old Cadillac back and bought a houseboat and just lived on the river for about five years and I was actually born in Florence and raised down there most of my life and went to high school in Decatur and came to Alabama as a freshman where I met Eddie Hinton and started working with him in '68 but I'd like to comment on Buddy Buie. The first time I saw Buddy Buie he was probably managing the Webs and we were sharing a bill with them at THE OLD DUTCH and I don't even remember what the name of my band was but in Buddy Buie I saw a guy who had more desire and more ability and more natural talent than anybody I'd run into in my life up to that time. He wasn't really a guitar player but make enough chords and he wasn't really a singer but he could write the most beautiful songs and when he would rair back and play one for a room full of people, he didn't let his guitar playing and vocals stand in the way, I mean, if you had any imagination at all, you could hear the finished product and I also noticed that Buddy took care of the little details nobody else wanted to do, like booking the jobs and making sure the guitar player had his pick. You know, all that kind of stuff~ I'm probably the least talented musician in the world but through watching him and a young Dan Penn; they both had that same power when they'd play one of their own songs. I don't know if Buddy remembers but I went over to Atlanta one time about '65 or '66 and we had signed with Columbia Records and was lucky enough to get a hit in the Southeast called LET LOVE COME BETWEEN US and I stayed with Buddy for a while and ended up over at Robert Nix's house who was the drummer for most of those great bands that y'all been talkin' 'bout and he's also got a band now with Dan Toler called the Toler-Townsend Band. 

Tiger Jack: Is Johnny on that? 

Wyker: Yeah, he's still in L.A. 
Married to Jennifer Toffel. Dr. Jim Coleman put 'em together and I'm sure you've heard the news on that... 

Tiger Jack: Yeah. 

Wyker: Dr. Coleman died a couple of months ago of a fall in his apartment. Fell down the stairs and broke his neck but I think there was more to it than that but I'm not going to say anything about it until... 

Tiger Jack: Get back to the old days! How did you and The James Gang... 
You told me a story a little bit earlier on the phone about how y'all crossed. 

Wyker: Right! When Buddy was talking about The James Gang broke up and just left Wilbur. You know, I mean, it's hard to compete with Roy Orbison, especially at that time or anytime but Wilbur called me up and said,"I gotta bunch of Christmas jobs booked on The James Gang and I don't have a band. I said,"Well, I gotta bunch of Rubber Band shows lined up but I don't have a singer and Wilbur said, "Tell you what, I'll give you," I think it was $200 a week or a gig, "if you'll get a band to back me up." So he said,"You can pay the other guys anything you want to and ,you know, make a little extra money on it," and  I did but it wasn't about money back in those days but one night we'd play as The James Gang and Wilbur would sing but he'd normally fiddle around for about two hours trying to get the P.A. working as he was knocking 'em out pretty good back then and he'd wait until he got his buzz adjusted just right and we didn't know any songs- basically- I went back to playing bass and Lou Mullinex was on drums and let's see, Tippy played guitar a little bit and Ronnie Brown played a little guitar and I played bass and we would do these long jams, like, imagine FUNKY BROADWAY and not put lyrics on it and I remember one night Wilbur was still stalling, trying to get the mic working. It probably worked. He just wouldn't flip the switch on until about halfway through the show but we didn't care, I mean, I was standing there facing the amps seeing pictures coming flying out of the bass amp and all this stuff and we kept playing...We were playing at a place in Auburn called the Shepherd's Purse. 
At first the people started yelling, "Play something else! Play something else!" and we just ignored 'em and kept playing this one chord instrumental. About an hour later, I looked up and everybody in the place was dancing and moving and the beer bottles on the shelves were swaying with the music so we kept playing about another hour and by then everybody had found them. I like to call this area THE LAND OF A THOUSAND DANCES. I mean, kids don't know how to act now days. You go to a party back then and everybody was doing some kind of dance~ The Alligator,laying down on the floor ~The Monkey, The Dog, The Funky Chicken~ all this stuff, well, we played as The James Gang one night. The next night we'd show up as The Rubber Band and I'd hire Cort. This was before Sail Cat. He was barely out of high school or still in high school and that worked out all right until we showed up in Mobile three nights in a row. First as The Rubber Band, then came back as The James Gang and the next night change clothes and went in and the third night we started to hear kids say," Hey, didn't we see them here last night?" and another go, "Yeah, last night and the night before!" and we were lucky to get out of that tour alive but I can say that, you know, I was a member of The Rubber Band and The James Gang~the final version of The James Gang~ at the same time! 

Tiger Jack: Well listen Wyker, you know how commercial radio is, we gotta take a break so we're gonna let you go. 

Wyker: I'd like to invite everybody to go to our website and get the whole story. I gotta bunch a songs I wrote, uh, stories I wrote called CAT TALES ~ T-A-L-E-S ~ but it's (URL deleted) and music on there you can download. Tell you about a lot we are doing today and I'd like to encourage everybody to bet a copy of the beach music book, HEY BABY. 

Tiger Jack: Yeah, we've talked about that a lot. 

Wyker: 18 pound book! I mean you won't believe it! It'll break somebody's back when you hand it to 'em. I mean, they could have just made a coffee table out of it! 

Tiger Jack: Well, all right, we appreciate you calling in Johnny. We gotta go take a break. 

Wyker: Get some of the old guys together like Wilbur and Buddy and whoever else is still alive and put on a damn show and show 'em us old Boomers can still rock! 

Tiger Jack: I hear you, buddy. Thanks for calling in. 

Wyker: I love you. I love you, man, for what you've done for the music business. 

Tiger Jack: Thank you, sir! We'll talk to you later. JOHNNY WYKER!!!! 
formally of The Rubber Band, calling in to talk with us. We got Wilbur here in the chair with us and we're gonna be talkin' more about the music of the 1960s and The James Gang coming up here in a second but first, let's take a break... 



Bobby Dupree, drummer for THE ROCKIN' GIBRALTARS, tribute to Johnny Wyker.                                  Johnny, man what an influence you had on not only me, The Rockin' Gibraltars, but tons of great musicians. I'll never forget 1967 playin' in PC at the Old Dutch, ya'll (The Magnificent Seven) playin at the Old Hickory, and the fun we had after the gigs. Not many people know this, but when the M7 recorded for Columbia, they were told they had to change their name, since Columbia had just released the movie "The Magnificent Seven", and they didn't want a conflict of interest lawsuit. Anyhow, Johnny called our bass player Keith Brewer and asked him if they (the M7) could buy our name, The Rockin' Gibraltars. We thought that was a kinda funny request, and of course we declined. I talked to Johnny shortly after that, and he told me that the M7 were recording an album, and they were going to change their name to "The Herald Angels". Johnny then said the album would be titled "Hark, the Herald Angels Sing". What a great idea, but not one they all liked so shortly afterwards they changed their name to The Rubber Band. After I got home from Viet Nam, we moved up to T Town because Johnny said the music scene was hopping there. Johnny got me back into music, and I was blessed to play with some of the greatest musicians including Tippy Armstrong, Johnny Townsend, Mike Duke, Court Picket, Charlie Hayward, Art Shilling, Ronny Brown, Bill Connell, Mike Lawley, and of course Johnny. This was 1971, and Wyker had a large art pad he carried around with the complete story board of "Motorcycle Mama" written out like a movie script with cartoon characters. It actually was one of the first music video concepts I'd seen. Johnny was way ahead of many in the music industry as far as conceptual ideas. He was the original "Rhymin' Simon". Johnny, you influenced many musicians over the years brother. We won't forget you brother

Bobby Dupree

John Scott Gellerstedt, formally of Dothan, passed away November 24, 2013. He was 63 years old. Scott attended Dothan High School, graduated from Lanier High School in Montgomery, Al. and attended the University of Alabama. Scott served our country in the military during the Vietnam war and was employed in the real estate appraisal business. Scott was preceded in death by his father, Sonny Gellerstedt and brother, Steve Gellerstedt. He is survived by his mother, Barbara Harris Adams; brother, Sam Gellerstedt of Sanford FL; sister, Shea Mendheim of Dothan; nephews, Cliff (Helen) Mendheim, Harris (Bay) Mendheim both of Dothan, Sammy, Michael, and Ben Gellerstedt of Sanford, FL. Scott had a host of friends and was loved by all who knew him. 


A Confederate Salt Kettle in Alabama (many thanks to Butch)

Scarlett: But you are a blockade runner. 
Rhett Butler: For profit, and profit only. 
Scarlett: Are you tryin' to tell me you don't believe in the cause? 
Rhett Butler: I believe in Rhett Butler, he's the only cause I know. 


Andrew F. Smith STARVING THE SOUTH http://muse.jhu.edu/login?auth=0&type=summary&url=/journals/journal_of_the_civil_war_era/v003/3.1.bonner.html

http://www.thewakullanews.com/content/confederate-salt-works-st-andrews-bay-apalachee-bay An Albatross Around the Neck of the Union: The Confederate Salt Makers of St. Andrews Bay

The St. Andrews Bay area's Civil War claim to fame is that the largest salt works in Florida were located here around Lake Powell at Phillips Inlet, West Bay, North Bay, Callaway Bayou and California Bayou in East Bay. These salt factories were owned by individuals and the Confederate government in Richmond as well as the Confederate governments of Alabama, Georgia 
and Florida. At many times during the three years from 1862 to 1865 as many as 2500 men along with 4000 wagons were involved in producing and transporting St. Andrews Bay salt. This immense industry did not exist before 1862 and it ceased to exist after 1865 as soon as normal channels of commerce were established after the war ended. 

A hungry Confederacy demanded salt and after Lincoln's naval blockading Anaconda Plan began, there was no salt to be had. No salt for food preservation. No salt for tanning leather. No salt for horses, mules and livestock. Prices for salt soared to one dollar a pound but in most cases no amount of Confederate money could buy salt but salt was essential to life so St. Andrews Bay became the site of an extremely lucrative enterprise during an extremely critical time.

There was never enough salt. In the present day, genealogists probe the salt rationing lists issued at Alabama, Georgia and Florida court houses. These lists tell us which individuals were judged to be worthy enough to be given the privilege of being allowed to buy salt during this most violent and extended drama in our history.

Most everyone in Florida started off the year 1861 with the attitude of "The Rights of The South At All Hazard!" but it didn't take long for little personal problems like death and suffering to override politics and by autumn of 1862, war weariness had already settled over the Confederacy.
LINKS RELATED TO CONFEDERATE SALT WORKS ON THE NORTHERN GULF 1) The Eastern Gulf Blockading Squadron of the U.S. Navy built their naval blockade station, barracks, wharf, refugee camp, prison and cemetery on Hurricane Island, the barrier island that once existed at the mouth of the channel entering St. Andrews Bay at the time of the Civil War. By 1934, all traces of Hurricane Island had disappeared underneath the Gulf's waters. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Union_blockade#Gulf_Blockading_Squadron

2) This is a Wikipedia article on the U.S.S. Roebuck, a bark rigged clipper ship. It is one of many Wikipedia articles on the U.S. ships used to launch amphibious attacks upon the people of St. Andrews Bay during the Civil War. Five sailors from this ship were killed by Confederate troops near the town of St. Andrews on March 20, 1863. One body was left on the beach and buried by the Confederates. The other four were buried on Hurricane Island. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/USS_Roebuck_(1856)

3) This is a link to a preview of Jeannie Weller Cooper's 2011 book, Panama City Beach: Tales From The World's Most Beautiful Beaches. This part reproduces the Hurricane Island information from a section of Marlene Womack's 1998 book, The Bay Country. John A. Burgess in his 1986 book, Sand In My Shoes, uses a Marlene Womack column from a June 1985 Panama City News-Herald and concludes from her information that Hurricane Island is now underneath the Gulf "in the open channel approximately one mile east south-east of the present day land's end (the eastern tip of today's Sand Island)." In 2013, the former land's end of Shell Island would now be a portion of Tyndall Beach.

4 ) This is a link that describes the markings on one of the Panama City salt kettles. A close friend of mine owns a Confederate salt kettle and I have his permission to examine & photograph it when I return to Alabama in January. I have also identified the location of two more kettles in the Mobile area.  http://www.flpublicarchaeology.org/civilwar/monuments/panama-city/asbell-park

5) This is a link to a 1955 Tequesta article that includes all the entries pertaining to Florida found in the journal of Dr. Walter Keeler, assistant surgeon aboard the U.S.S. Sagamore. The sailors of the Sagamore wrecked the salt works on St. Andrews Bay in September of 1862. Keeler noted that "salt nicely crystalized in cubical crystals" and that the people of St. Andrews promised not to build any more salt works.  Dr. Keeler does a great job of describing how he and his crew killed time between missions by oystering, crabbing, fishing and hunting game around the freshwater lakes in the dunes of Northwest Florida. He also writes that he had "no desire to go ashore in any part of Florida held by the rebels." http://digitalcollections.fiu.edu/tequesta/files/1955/55_1_04.pdf

6) This is the link where I first discovered excerpts from Dr. Keeler's journal. It includes images of ships that launched attacks against St. Andrews Bay and also includes a photograph of Dr. Keeler.

7) This is the Wikipedia link for Dr. Keeler's ship, the U.S.S. Sagamore. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/USS_Sagamore_(1861)

8) This is a November 2012 article by John Roberts who in his retirement has seen fit to go out and examine the remains of salt works in Northwest Florida. This was published in the Wakulla News and includes a picture of a large salt kettle that may still be in the salt marsh near the St. Marks Lighthouse.

U.S.S. ALBATROSS The U.S.S. HARTFORD & the U.S.S. ALBATROSS Sailing Past The Rebel Guns At Port Hudson U.S.S. TAHOMA U.S.S. KINGFISHER Attacking Salt Works The U.S.S. HARTFORD & the U.S.S. ALBATROSS Sailing Past The Rebel Guns At Port Hudson
9) This is a link to a lesson plan on Confederate Salt Makers in Florida prepared in 1940. It includes John S.C. Abbott's description of the December 1863 burning of the town of St. Andrews which was published in Harper's Magazine in November 1866. http://www.floridamemory.com/items/show/181536?id=6

Abbott in Harper's 1866   "They rowed along, in a westerly direction about 20 miles, through a 
varied scene of wilderness, desolation, and beauty, and then landing, 
marched through the wilderness country five miles until they reached a large 
sheet of salt-water, called Lake Ocala. Here they came suddenly upon 
Kent's salt-works. There were 13 huge tanks or kettles in full blast, each 
holding 200 gallons. It seemed as though they had fallen upon some realm of 
Pluto, as they saw the immense fires blazing, Negroes running to and fro 
feeding them with the resinous fuel, and the air filled with smoke and vapor. 
They were producing 130 gallons of salt daily. Our boat's crew, who 
certainly deserve the title of intrepid, broke the boilers into pieces, utterly 
demolished the works and threw into the lake all the salt which they had 
accumulated. Two large flat-boats and six ox-carts were destroyed, and 17 
prisoners taken and paroled. 

"The success of this expedition incited to other similar movements. 
It so chanced that the stern-wheel steamer Bloomer, under Acting-Ensign 
Edwin Cressy, arrived. The steamer was of such light draught that she 
could run almost anywhere over the shallow waters of the bay. Master 
Browne put three officers and 48 men on board, and sent them to the 
western extremity of the bay, to a place called West Bay, where they found 
extensive Government salt-works, which were producing 400 bushels daily. 
Here they destroyed 27 buildings, 222 boilers and kettles, 5,000 bushels of 
salt, and storehouses containing three months' provisions. The estimated 
value of the property destroyed was half a million of dollars. 

"This little stern-wheeler which a sailor said 'could run where-ever 
there was a light dew,' now steamed down the shore of the bay, 
penetrating all its secluded inlets, and destroyed 198 private salt-making 
establishments. Seven hundred and sixty boilers and kettles were broken to 
pieces, and an immense amount of salt thrown into the lake. There was also 
committed to the flames 200 buildings, 27 wagons, and five large flat- 
boats. The entire damage to the enemy was deemed not less than 
$3,000,000. . . . 

"By some strange instinct, in these far-away regions, the slaves, 
with universal acclaim, received the Union soldiers as their deliverers. No 
frowns of their masters could repress their delight. With joy, which at 
times passed all bounds, they availed themselves of the opportunity of 
escaping from a bondage which their souls loathed. These ever-true 
friends to the Union cause proved of great service in pointing out the location of salt works, and the places where kettles had been hastily buried for 
concealment. Thirty-one of these contrabands accompanied the steamer back. 

"While these movements were in operation, Acting-Master Browne, 
learning from deserters that the town of St. Andrews had been occupied for 
10 months by a rebel military force, steamed up in the bark Restless to within 
100 yards of the town. Seeing a body of soldiers he shelled them and drove 
them speedily into the woods. Then, selecting some of the weathermost 
houses for a target, he soon set them in flames by his shells, and the 
conflagration rapidly spreading, in a few hours 32 houses were reduced to 

"Salt is one of the necessities of life. The rebel armies could not 
exist without it. They immediately made efforts to repair and defend 
their ruined works. Early in February 1864, the rebels had put up at 
West Bay, upon the site of the ruins which he had left there in 
December, greatly enlarged works, with a guard of 50 men to protect 
them. There were 26 sheet-iron boilers, each one of which held 881 
gallons, and 19 kettles averaging 200 gallons. These boilers and kettles 
had cost nearly $147,000, and the works covered a space of half a square 
mile. They had been in operation but 10 days when Lieut. W. R. 
Browne fitted out a cutter, manned with 13 men under Acting-Ensign 
James J. Russel, and sent them up the Gulf coast 20 miles. Here they 
were to land and march inland seven miles, until they should strike the 
works in West Bay, thus attacking them in the rear. 

10) Here's a New York Times article from December of 1863 which also includes a description of the burning of St. Andrews. 

11) This material also came from the Confederate Salt Makers lesson plan.
According to The Tallahassee Historical Society Annual (1935) 
in an article written by F. A. Rhodes: "the average small salt plant 
consisted merely of a large kettle holding from 60 to 100 gallons of 
water and set in a brick or clay furnace. They were very similar to the 
syrup furnaces of today found on our small farms in this section. They 
were not built directly on the shore because of the high tides and wind, 
but were usually located a few hundred feet inland. Very near this 
furnace and kettle was dug a shallow well which always produced a 
plentiful supply of salty water. Perhaps this water was not quite as salty 
as that secured direct from the Gulf, but there was not an appreciable 
difference and it was very much more convenient. Instead of having a 
haul the water some distance, it could simply be drawn from the well and 
poured directly into the kettle. 

"Sometimes shallow holes were dug along the shore, and falling 
tides would leave them full of water, which was dipped up and carried in 
buckets to the furnace. . . . 

"The salt water after being poured into the kettle, was boiled in 
the same way as the brine secured form the smoke house. When there 
was only a thick brine left in the kettle it was dipped up, for further 
cooking would only burn that salt near the bottom of the kettle and render it unfit for use. The brine was usually placed on clean boards for 
the drying and bleaching process. Sometimes the brine was poured in a 
barrel, and after it settled, the water was dipped off the top. This was 
done particularly if the salt was not for table consumption, but merely for 
use in packing meat, etc. 

"Still others put the thick brine in bags and hung it up to dry, 
while others used fine sieves for the drying process. The salt often 
contained pieces of seaweed or other foreign particles which were 

12) This article is an excellent summary of most of the wrecking done on St. Andrews Bay by the U.S. Navy during the Civil War.

13) This article about the destruction of salt works on Cedar Keys includes an image of the U.S.S. Tahoma.

14) Here's a brief description of the Union raid on Geneva, Alabama in December 1862 which resulted in the capture of the Bloomer which became the U.S.S. Bloomer and was used in the attack on St. Andrews in December of 1863. http://www.genevapubliclibrary.org/genevareaper/general/Geneva%20Heritage%20Bloomer.pdf

15) This is the description of the Masonic funeral of the skipper of the Albatross.

16) This is the Wikipedia article about the Confederate officer in St. Francisville who arranged the truce and Masonic funeral for Lt. Commander Hart. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Walter_Leake

17) This link describes on of
Connecticut's contributions to the Union's war effort: the construction of the U.S.S. Albatross in Mystic.  http://connecticuthistory.org/connecticuts-naval-contributions-to-the-civil-war/

18) Here's another link to the St. Francisville tradition produced by Lt. Commander Hart's suicide: THE DAY THE WAR STOPPED http://www.exploresouthernhistory.com/daythewarstopped.html

19) Log of the Albatross  http://books.google.com/books?id=WwNHAQAAIAAJ&pg=PA710&lpg=PA710&dq=%22commander+henry+french%22&source=bl&ots=B1Nfn-YgF2&sig=w3EBU1jiKSv13kdL1gxTWIGPKH4&hl=en&sa=X&ei=sMyQUo-1FKzZsASs8ICgDg&ved=0CDoQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=%22commander%20henry%20french%22&f=false

20) Wikipedia article on the U.S.S. Albatross http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/USS_Albatross_(1858)

21) The letters of Lieutenant Commander John E. Hart 1825-1863  http://cdm16099.contentdm.oclc.org/cdm/compoundobject/collection/p15241coll8/id/60

22) Goucher College's Ella Lonn's wonderful journal article about the St. Andrews salt works. This work was incorporated into her landmark book, SALT AS A FACTOR IN THE CONFEDERACY

23) This work was prepared for the commemoration of the 150th anniversary of the Civil War in Florida http://www.flheritage.com/preservation/trails/civilwar/civilwar.pdf

24) This is a link to a book that includes a description of the December 1863 attack when the town of St. Andrews was burned. http://books.google.com/books?id=4M6ro7N3mGEC&pg=PA97&lpg=PA97&dq=%22salt+making%22+%22st.+andrews+bay%22&source=bl&ots=-hpTzxkfl-&sig=JpM58U5RYQLjkM7Tzkv6lcV_9gI&hl=en&sa=X&ei=NRKFUofwEKf-4APgrYDoBQ&ved=0CDUQ6AEwAjgK#v=onepage&q=%22salt%20making%22%20%22st.%20andrews%20bay%22&f=false

25) Great recent article with an overview of salt making in Northwest Florida during the Civil War. http://floridamemory.com/blog/2012/07/25/needs-more-salt/

26) A 2012 description of a Civil War reenactment of the St. Andrews Skirmish in Panama City. http://civilwarnavy150.blogspot.com/2012/04/st-andrews-bay-saltworks-raid-event-21.html

27) Here's a recent little history lesson on the salt works written by the Wakulla County salt works aficionado, John Y. Roberts. https://wakullahistoricalsociety.files.wordpress.com/2012/06/salt-works-final-6-15-12.pdf

28) Paul A. Clifford's 1888 History of St. Andrews Bay is a short 76 page pamphlet that has a good description of the bay area in 1888. https://archive.org/stream/authenticreporth00clif#page/n3/mode/2up

29) George M. West's book on St. Andrews Bay http://books.google.com/books?id=YDwVAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA46&lpg=PA46&dq=%22GEORGE+MORTIMER+WEST%22+ST.+ANDREWS&source=bl&ots=bUIfzqtnLu&sig=I17gnTtBxQ64x333qPSIVokXdWE&hl=en&sa=X&ei=NlN-UricN7K-4AOyiYGoCA&ved=0CEYQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=%22GEORGE%20MORTIMER%20WEST%22%20ST.%20ANDREWS&f=false

30) The official record of the attack that destroyed the town of St. Andrews in December of 1863. http://digital.library.cornell.edu/cgi/t/text/pageviewer-idx?c=moawar;cc=moawar;rgn=full%20text;idno=ofre0017;didno=ofre0017;view=image;seq=635;node=ofre0017%3A1;page=root;size=100

Sunday, October 13, 2013

This article was published in the FALL 2013 issue of CRIMSON MAGAZINE, The Magazine of the TIDE NATION  Volume 5 Number 2


"This is the beginning of a new day. 
God has given me this day to use as I will.
I can waste it or use it for good.

What I do today is important as I am
exchanging a day of my life for it.

When tomorrow comes, this day will be gone forever.
Leaving something in its place I have traded for it.

I want it to be a gain, not loss--good, not evil.
Success, not failure,

in order that I shall not forget the price I paid for it."
~  a poem found in Coach Bryant’s wallet on the day of his death

On Wednesday, September 11, 2013, Bama fans around the world will celebrate the centennial of Coach Paul "Bear" Bryant's birth. Everyone else will also have an opportunity to commemorate this important anniversary with the premiere of a documentary and the publication of a coffee table book dedicated to our beloved coach's life. The Bryant Museum will open a new exhibit by holding a reception and many of the authors who have written Bryant books will be in attendance. Although these events are significant they really can't compare to the last time Alabama football celebrated a centennial. 

In 1992, Bama saluted 100 years of Alabama football. The music group ALABAMA kicked it all off on A Day with a big concert in Bryant-Denny. There was a black tie gala hosted by ABC-TV announcer Keith Jackson at the civic center in Birmingham honoring THE TEAM OF THE CENTURY and to cap off the successful sales of CENTURY OF CHAMPIONS commemorative calendars, Daniel Moore prints, card sets, limited edition books, audio tapes and video collections, the University of Alabama football team went out and won the first ever SEC Championship game, creamed Miami 34 to 13 in the Sugar Bowl and won the National Championship.

Let's all hope some of that centennial success from '92 rubs off on this ‘13 team and THE INVINCIBLE SPIRIT OF THE MIGHTY CRIMSON TIDE makes history once again this season and the Bear Bryant Centennial ends appropriately with Bama winning an unprecedented three National Championships in a row and breaks the "three in a row" jinx that plagued Bama teams in 1927, 1966 and 1980.

Back in 1892, the inaugural season of Crimson Tide football, Amos Alonzo Stagg, the man whose record for most college football wins would stand until November 28, 1981 when Coach Bryant broke it with a 28-17 defeat of Auburn, joined the faculty at the University of Chicago and became the first person in human history to be hired and paid to be a college football coach. Right off the bat, Stagg understood that college football was a coach’s game and a highly successful and lucrative spectator sport. Stagg recognized that discipline and order put points on the board and he also understood that the best way to promote a great university was by fielding a championship football squad.

It took Bama a few years to figure out how to build a championship football program but in 1912, the year before Coach Bryant’s birth, the University of Alabama Board of Trustees hired Dr. George “Mike” Denny as University President and the rest is history. Dr. Denny had served as head football coach at Hampden-Sydney College in the late 1890s and recognized the game’s potential to contribute to both the enrollment and the actual physical expansion of the Alabama campus. During Dr. Denny’s tenure, Bama appeared in four Rose Bowl games and the first section of the stadium was constructed and named in his honor. Paul “Bear” Bryant played in the 1935 Rose Bowl and helped Bama claim another national championship during the last year of Dr. Denny’s tenure.

This season our team will pursue its 16th national championship as Bama celebrates the centennial of Coach Bryant’s birth. The 52 years that elapsed between the time Paul Bryant arrived on campus in 1931 until the day he passed away in 1983 represent almost half of the history of the team and Coach Bryant had a significant impact upon almost every year of that half century of Alabama football. Various authors have focused upon the forces which shaped Coach Bryant’s formative years and led him from his birthplace in Smith Chapel, Arkansas on the Cleveland County side of Morro Creek to the University of Alabama on the south bank of the Black Warrior River but no writer has ever discovered the secret to Coach Bryant’s winning formula and his charismatic mystique.

Of all the authors of Bear Bryant books, John Underwood has come the closest to giving us a blueprint of the man who would do so much to put Bama back on top of the college football world. By turning on his tape recorder and asking the right questions, Underwood preserved for us to this day the impressions Coach Bryant wanted to leave with those who would study him in the future. As he described growing up in Southeast Arkansas, Bryant measured the milestones in his early life by recalling major media events like the 1925 Floyd Collins’ Sand Cave disaster or Professor Snook’s Ohio State coed murder in the summer of 1929 or the radio broadcast of Alabama’ 24-0 shutout of Washington State in the 1931 Rose Bowl. How ironic that many of the conversations Underwood had with Bryant would be recorded while they were sitting beside the swimming pool of Golden Flake founder Sloan Bashinsky’s estate on Lower Matecumbe Key. As a sponsor of the Bear Bryant Show, Bashinsky was partly responsible at the time for producing Bryant’s “Sundays at 4” broadcast replay of each Bama game. The program became one of the most highly rated syndicated television shows in America where Coach Bryant established the powerful bond between himself and all those proud mamas and papas and hometowns across Alabama where most of his players and fans would be recruited. That big old Arkansas plowboy certainly left the mules and the piney woods behind for good and he sure did learn some city ways right quick and by the time he took over the Alabama program, Golden Flake and Coca-Cola allowed him to become a master at utilizing the most powerful mass media tool of his day: the television.

In a recent article about his football career and his present work with the Episcopal Church, former Crimson Tide lineman Colenzo Hubbard described the Bryant magic:

“Then Coach Hennessy said,’ Coach Bryant thinks you can do it.’ Because Coach Bryant thought that. It gave me this supernatural energy. I worked twice as hard to learn the position. I could not let Coach Bryant down if he had that much confidence in me.”

There's a great Bear Bryant story where all his assistant coaches are laid up in the Foster Auditorium ticket office early one morning right after Bama won their first National Championship under the leadership of the Bear. The coaches are back on campus but they're still celebrating. The students haven’t returned from Christmas holidays, Coach Bryant is up in his office and the whole crew is relaxing on the ticket office furniture; feet propped up, smoking cigars and laughing about how they'd showed the whole country what real football was by whipping Arkansas on national television and in front of over 85,000 people in the Sugar Bowl on New Years Day 1962. A 48-year-old Paul Bryant comes through the door and nobody even gets a chance to grin. BAM! He starts kicking ankles and knocking heads. "GET UP, GO TO WORK & LET'S WIN ANOTHER CHAMPIONSHIP!"

The Bear Bryant Centennial is a once in a lifetime opportunity to focus public attention upon this national icon and the cultural phenomenon that his life represents.
The people who knew Coach Bryant best are sadly no longer with us. One of his best friends, Julian Lackey, passed away just a few months after Coach Bryant did in 1983 and Mary Harmon went to her grave the next year. Mae Martin passed on in 1988. It’s been over a decade since John Forney and Coach Ken Donohue departed us. Louise Goolsby, the last living of his 12 brothers and sisters, passed away in 2004 and Charley Thornton the same year. Sloan Bashinsky expired the next year.  We lost Coach Dude Hennessey and Jimmy Hinton in 2011. Last year Coach Clem Gryska and Billy Varner both died and we just lost Coach Moore this year.

After the passing of the years, Coach Bryant’s success story will almost seem mythical and soon his accomplishments will be reduced to an abstraction on the cultural landscape of America. We can use this celebration to emphasize the need to preserve the cultural resources associated with this “legend in his own time” and to stress the importance of passing an accurate picture of Coach Bryant’s life down to coming generations.

Most of the folks reading this article consider Paul William Bryant to be the greatest college football coach who ever lived. He experienced unprecedented success in his field of endeavor but in retrospect he may be remembered today as a man who coached a little too long and who did not live long enough. The last chapter of his life should cause each of us to reflect upon just how does one get off this big old rusty hamster wheel of life when the time comes to retire.
Consider Coach Bryant’s words in this excerpt from former Michigan Coach Shembechler’s autobiography, BO :

"Bo, I don't wanna go back to the office. I don't wanna recruit one more kid. I don't wanna coach anymore."

 …"You are going to find this out someday. I hired 47 people at the University of Alabama athletic department. If I quit what happens to them? What happens to those assistant coaches and office people and all of them that I brought in here? ... Here's what. They're out in the cold. The new guy will replace them. Now how can I do that to them? ... You'll face that someday, Bo. You will. And, damn it, I hope you are smart about."

As we consider the mythic spirit and great legacy of Coach Bryant during this centennial year, it is a bit disconcerting that we began the year with our star quarterback feeling comfortable enough to tell al.com’s Izzy Gould, “I was never an Alabama fan. I don’t know the history, at all.” And concerning Coach Bryant, he said,” I heard he was tough to play for.”  These statements, published two days before the national championship game with Notre Dame in the Orange Bowl, produced headlines like: A.J. McCARRON DOESN’T KNOW ANYTHING ABOUT ALABAMA’S HISTORY OR BEAR BRYANT and AJ McCARRON SAID HE WAS NEVER AN ALABAMA FAN AND DOESN’T KNOW ABOUT BEAR BRYANT. Maybe, in the future, A.J. should either avoid Izzy Gould or discuss statements such as these with his media consultant before making them because this ain’t exactly the best way to endear yourself with some of the most loyal and passionate football fans in this country. AJ ought to take a few precious moments out of his extremely valuable time, walk across the street from the football complex, and take an extended tour of the BEAR BRYANT CENTENNIAL exhibit in the Bryant Museum before he begins this historically significant season.

100 years ago September 11, Coach Bryant was born a hungry Arkansas country boy who lived his first eleven years in a small house located on a wagon trail that didn’t even have a bridge over the creek you had to cross in order to get to town. When he died 69 years later, the police closed 55 miles of the eastbound lanes of two major interstate highways for his funeral and not a single car was seen in the westbound lanes heading from Birmingham toward Tuscaloosa. Every westbound motorist voluntarily pulled over onto the side of the road out of respect for THE BEAR. Let us dedicate this football season to the celebration of THE BEAR BRYANT CENTENNIAL and to the commemoration of the accomplishments of A TRUE GIANT OF THE GAME as our MIGHTY CRIMSON TIDE pursues another national championship.

This article was published in the September-October issue of PANAMA CITY LIVING MAGAZINE Volume 8 Number 5

Good Time Memories That Last A Lifetime
And just a few you might want to forget…

“Yeah, keep your eyes on the road,
Your hands upon the wheel.
Keep your eyes on the road,
Your hands upon the wheel.
Yeah, we’re going to the Roadhouse.
We’re gonna have a real
Good time.”

The Old Dutch was the first bar ever built on Panama City Beach and for thirty five years, from 1940 until 1975, billed itself as “The Oldest Recreation and Pleasure Center On The Beach” and was the first on “America’s Finest Beach” to advertise to the public to “Eat, Drink, Dance & Make Merry In The Cool Gulf Breezes.” By the 1960s, the kitchen had all but closed except for short orders and the old bar and dance hall had gained fame as a Spring Break and summer vacation destination for college students all over the Deep South. In the words of Wilbur Walton, Jr.,” It was a Mecca for dancing, fighting and music; like the Wild West but without the guns.” Simply mention the three words “The Old Dutch” to most any aging Baby Boomer who went to college in the Deep South during the Sixties and you’ll put a smile on their face. There are exceptions to that rule as well. Many a relationship met a premature end in the alcoholic excesses that characterized The Old Dutch.

When you walked into the barroom of The Old Dutch, you felt as if you’d just stepped into a rustic Florida roadhouse time capsule lifted out of some Forties film noir classic. The bare cypress log walls were covered with various clocks, curios and stuffed hunting and fishing trophies; all crowned with a high ceiling of exposed rough cypress beams. As you entered you faced a huge stone fireplace, constructed from 113 tons of rock that could burn logs five feet long. The anchor of the old 160 ft. coastal freighter, Tarpon, sunk off Phillips Inlet in 1937, stood mounted on the mantelpiece. To the left was the unpolished bar made of cypress lumber and blackened by the tobacco and whiskey it had dispensed since 1940. Not only did The Old Dutch offer its hospitality to the Sixties college student but it had done the same thing for their grandparents in the Forties and for their parents in the Fifties.

The story of The Old Dutch began over 75 years ago when Sylvan Beach, New York’s Frank Burghduff pulled his “palatial” nineteen-and-a-half foot mahogany and steel travel trailer down Highway 98 for the first time and fell in love with Bay County’s beaches during the winter of 1936-’37. Burghduff and his wife, Etta, parked at the newly opened Sea Breeze Hotel near the Y. They made their headquarters in this first hotel on the beach to offer hot and cold running water and began meeting “the powers that be” in the St. Andrews Bay area.

Burghduff could not have chosen a more perfect time to arrive on the soon-to-be Miracle Strip than in the winter of 1936-’37. On the Panama City beaches time scale, this was equivalent with the “End of The Ice Age”. The Phillips Inlet Bridge had been recently completed in ’35, finally opening the Coastal Highway. J.B. Lahan had begun development of his Laguna Beach and Gid Thomas held his grand opening for his Panama City Beach on May 2, 1936. When the Coastal Highway Association was formed a few years later, Burghduff was recognized for his pioneering achievements to promote tourism and was elected secretary while only two other men were selected to represent the interest of the beaches: A.W. Pledger who was the son-in-law of deceased Panama City Beach founder Gid Thomas and J.E. Churchwell, the owner of Long Beach Resort.
Burghduff returned to the beaches in the winter of ’37-’38 and by 1939, after purchasing a piece of beachfront from Wells, Dunn, Hutchison, Bullock & Bennett, was ready to begin fulfilling his dream of building a one-of-a-kind beachside roadhouse. Unfortunately, while construction of The Old Dutch was underway, Burghduff’s wife, Etta, whose family was also from the Lake Oneida, N.Y. area, developed a partial paralysis and passed away in September after being transported to a hospital in Dothan. She was buried in Greenwood Cemetery along with Frank where both of their grave markers bear similar inscriptions, “Etta Burghduff -Wife & Pal” and “Frank Burghduff-Husband & Pal”.

When the summer season of 1940 commenced, The Old Dutch opened its newly constructed doors for the first time but with little fanfare. The first advertisement we find in the News-Herald is printed on September 28, 1940, inviting “Panama City Folks” to come out to the beach for “low winter prices” and listing “Special Meals, Cocktail to Dessert 75 cents, Seafood Grille 45 cents, Real Italian Spaghetti 35 cents, Western Steaks $1, $1.25, $1.50” This ad is significant because it’s the first time a Bay County restaurant ever advertised “Western Steaks”. At this time, the Florida cattle industry was in its infancy and most Americans considered Florida beef inferior and only good for the Cuban market.

In November of 1940, Burghduff began to purchase small ads in the local papers promoting weekend floor shows but his publicity machine really cranked up in December when he began broadcasting a short Friday afternoon program on radio station WDLP which was still in its first year of existence. Among the first to appear on this radio show promoting The Old Dutch was Neal McCormick and his Hawaiian Troubadours. McCormick, a Northwest Florida Creek Indian who had never even visited Hawaii, felt that the Hawaiian label went along well with his band’s pioneering use of the electric and steel guitars plus discrimination against Hawaiians was far less in the Deep South than it was against Indians. McCormick was the first to hire Hank Williams as a musician and there’s a good chance that a seventeen-year-old Hank Williams played with the Hawaiian Troubadours during the first New Years Eve show ever put on at The Old Dutch in 1940.

The first hint that there was going to be trouble in paradise for Burghduff occurred when a short comment was printed in a gossip column that appeared on the editorial page of the Panama City Pilot on Friday, July 18, 1941.  In “Our Town: Off the Record Bits and Views”, we read, “Apparently the sheriff’s office is going quietly about investigating the $700 burglary of
The Old Dutch Tavern last weekend. That office has a habit of going quietly about a good many things.” Not only was Burghduff missing his proceeds from the July 4 holiday but before Christmas, he ran an ad announcing to the public that they needed to “make reservations now for your Christmas party and New Years party”. Also included was the first of many more to come announcements of a change in management. The Old Dutch was now being run by Maud B. Meyers of the “Exclusive Spinning Wheel of Virginia, Specializing in Southern Fried and Bar-b-cued Chicken and Seafood.” More importantly, 1941 ushered in something far greater than a change of management. It brought WWII to the beaches.

A war with Germany put many Bay County tongues to wagging about the tavern keeper at the beach with the “German” name. In January, Burghduff had to take out a large ad in the News-Herald denying the “false and damnable rumors” about him being picked up by the FBI on several occasions because he was a Nazi spy with a short-wave radio.  He declared his pride in his “Dutch blood” and emphasized, “I AM AN AMERICAN CITIZEN 100%”.

But big ads in the local paper could not reverse the changes Burghduff faced on the home front due to the war effort. The influx of workers at Wainwright Shipyard and GIs at Tyndall Field could not make up for the fact that pleasure driving had been made illegal and the Old Dutch being located by the Gulf meant that all its lights had to be extinguished from sunset to sunrise. Being located ten miles out of town did not help in a world where everyone had to beg, borrow, barter and save ration stamps just to get gas and tires so they could go to work. Even ten buses running up and down the beach from downtown to Sunnyside twenty hours each day was not enough to prevent Frank from having to repeatedly run ads throughout 1942 and 1943 declaring that The Old Dutch really was “Open For Business”. By 1944, the pressure was too much and Burghduff packed up and sold out to Cliff Stiles, the manager of downtown’s Dixie-Sherman Hotel.

Cliff Stiles had arrived in Panama City during the fall of 1938 to take over the Dixie-Sherman after his hotel chain had purchased it. Stiles owned hotels all over the Southeast and in 1946, he purchased one of the largest hotels in Birmingham, The Redmont. Much of the talent that later appeared on the stage of The Old Dutch would be recruited from the Redmont.

From 1944 until 1950, not much was heard from The Old Dutch. Stiles kept a low profile and there were no promotions and no efforts to attract tourists. Construction on the beach exploded in the late Forties so that brought in business from the workers and Stiles remodeled the cypress log cabin and began building a motel around it. During its first ten years, this roadhouse was generally known as “The Old Dutch Tavern” and, occasionally, “The Old Dutch Inn” but after 1950, it was known almost exclusively as “The Old Dutch Inn” and by the mid-Sixties, “The Old Dutch Motel and Nightclub” or, more popularly, as simply, “The Old Dutch”.

The “Gala Opening” of The Old Dutch “under new management” occurred on April 22, 1950. The Joseph brothers out of Birmingham were brought in by Stiles to run the show and a variety of talent was recruited from the stage of the Redmont as well as the Joseph brothers own Jack-O-Lantern Club in Birmingham. It is not within the scope of this article to examine the careers of all the entertainers who performed on the stage of The Old Dutch but an excellent insight into the status of show business on the Gulf Coast in the middle of the twentieth century could be gained from a study of this variety of musicians, dancers, acrobats and comedians.

The management of the Joseph brothers may not have contributed to the events of June 1952, but the arrest of The Old Dutch Hotel manager for embezzlement brought Auburn’s H.H. Lambert in as the new proprietor of the “air conditioned” Old Dutch Inn. Lambert lasted two years on the beach and when he turned in his keys in September of ’54, he returned to Auburn where he built the War Eagle Supper Club, an institution that continues to do business in the present day and which remains, in the words of singer Taylor Hicks, “a true southern roadhouse” that promotes itself with a slogan that could have been applied to the Old Dutch in its heyday: “Cold Beer. Hot Rock. Expect No Mercy.”

By 1957, Stiles had begun selling his old properties while acquiring Holiday Inn franchises. After building the first Gulfside Holiday Inn on property adjoining The Old Dutch on the west in ’63, he hired Betty Koehler to manage The Old Dutch Motel and Nightclub. As The Old Dutch acquired its reputation as the classic Panama City Beach bar during the Golden Age of Beach Music, Stiles began to sell his newly constructed Holiday Inns and he ceased to lease out the roadhouse’s premises to managers. Betty and Cliff worked together and formed a team that turned The Old Dutch into “a nickel silver plated money baling machine”.

Exotic dancers continued to perform during the Sixties but the “bread and butter” performers during the season were rock and roll bands composed of young guys in their late teens and early twenties. Any dreams they ever had of a summer filled with sun, surf, sand, beer and bikinis were crushed when they realized their schedule included at least eight sessions a week and as many as twelve a week during the week of July 4. Guitar players regularly changed out their strings every week from the wear that was enhanced by the salt air and sweat. These young musicians had to be dedicated and determined to show the world that they were special. During July 4th week, multiple bands were hired and after 1971, live entertainment began every day at noon and went on in continuous four hour shifts until 4 A.M. in the morning.

There was no such thing as a fire code in The Old Dutch and the dance hall often looked like a smoke filled cavern; packed to the walls, shoulder to shoulder. More than one musician who played there has made this remark using the same words, ”I didn’t know you could get that many people in a room.”

You grew up fast when you played The Old Dutch. Many a teenage guitar player witnessed his first striptease act standing behind the stripper while providing her with the music to which she was dancing. Many of the cocktail waitresses and Go-Go girls didn’t appreciate male affection and many musicians first witnessed their first open “display of affection” between a same-sex couple when the waitress’ short-haired “boyfriend” came to pick her up dressed in madras shirt, pressed khakis and penny loafers. The first time many a Tri-State male saw a woman go out in public without wearing a bra was at The Old Dutch. To craft your first fake I.D. and use it to get into The Old Dutch was a Gulf Coast rite of passage.

During the summer of ’65, a beach music classic was born on the dance floor of The Old Dutch. A band from South Alabama called the K-Otics were playing one week and during their breaks they visited the nearby Old Hickory where the Swingin’ Medallions were performing. The K-Otics loved “Double Shot of My Baby’s Love” and asked the Medallions if they planned to record it. The Medallions said, ”No,” so the K-Otics laid plans to cut the record. Later in the fall, the Medallions had a change of heart and recorded “Double Shot”. Both the Swingin’ Medallions and the K-Otics released their versions in the spring of ’66. The K-Otics had a regional hit and the Medallions’ record went national and the rest is history. Bruce Springsteen called “Double Shot”, “the greatest fraternity rock song of all time.” Columnist Bob Greene called it “the ultimate get-drunk-and-throw-up song. You heard it in every juke box in every bar in the world.” In 1993, Louis Grizzard wrote, ”Even today, when I hear ‘Double Shot of My Baby’s Love’, it makes me want to stand outside in the hot sun with a milkshake cup full of beer in one hand and a slightly drenched coed in the other.”

This article only scratches the surface on the story of The Old Dutch. Somebody needs to write a book about this old roadhouse. This is a story that transcends generations. The events of the four decades when The Old Dutch stood on the beach would chronicle the emergence of live entertainment on Panama City Beach.

This writer will never forget going to see a 60-something guitar player as he lay on his deathbed in a V.A. hospice. It was 2006 and Greg Haynes had published his giant thirteen pound book, THE HEEEY BABY DAYS OF BEACH MUSIC, with its 552 pages and 800 images. My friend forced himself out of his drug-induced coma so he could see the newly published book. He silently gazed at the pictures as I turned the pages for him. He held himself up as long as he possibly could and as I turned the page that had the image of The Old Dutch, he said, “Oh, I remember that place.” Those were his only words and I soon left and a few days later my friend passed away.

The Old Dutch passed away in 1975 due to damage produced by Hurricane Eloise and by the summer of ’76, it was ready for demolition.

The Old Dutch was built on shifting sand, moving each day in countless ways, reforming thousands of times. The beach itself never stands still yet The Old Dutch stood for over 35 years serving the migratory hordes of vacationers each summer. The memories of those excesses of so long ago were made within alcoholic oblivion but those memories of The Old Dutch are not lost. To my dying day, I’ll say, ”Oh, I remember that place.”

Go to my blog , Zero, Northwest Florida http://robertoreg.blogspot.com
& you can see over 50 images pertaining to THE OLD DUTCH plus some comments.
Anyone who would like to share their reminiscences or images of The Old Dutch is welcome to contact me at robertoreg@gmail.com 

This article was published in the July-August issue of PANAMA CITY LIVING MAGAZINE
Volume 8 Number 4


“Mother, Mother Ocean, I’ve heard you call.
Wanted to sail upon your waters since I was three feet tall.
You’ve seen it all. You’ve seen it all.

Watch the men who rode you
Switch from sail to steam
In your belly you hold the treasures
Few have ever seen.
Most of ‘em dream, most of ‘em dream”
                                  Jimmy Buffett

“If we are facing in the right direction, all we have to do is keep on walking.”
                                                                           ~ Zen proverb

Sometimes in our hectic lives even the most ambitious among us desire to turn our backs on the daily pursuit of power and success, to leave the suburban sprawl behind and to embrace the enchanting but unprofitable art of beachcombing. Like our prehistoric hunter-gatherer ancestors who started some of the mounds around St. Andrews Bay, we may choose to begin our intertidal zone scavenger hunt for shells, driftwood or some other part of Poseidon’s treasure on one of Bay County’s many isolated Gulf front beaches [see the BAY COUNTY’S BEST GULF BEACHES box in this article] but even if we don’t get a kick out of having the chance to enjoy Neptune’s blessing by getting something for nothing, a nice stroll on a peaceful beach is a great opportunity to decompress in the salt air, to calm your soul , to “give your head some space” and in the current cultural vernacular, “to stay Zen.”

The word “beachcomber” made its first appearance in print in Herman Melville’s 1847 book OMOO. Melville used the term to describe unemployed sailors who foraged along the beaches of Pacific islands for the remains of shipwrecks. Over the course of the next 166 years, the term has been associated with deserters, free-loaders, bums, drifters and in some cases, the criminal class of wreckers who were known to set up false beacon lights to lure ships onto shoals. Wrecking became such a tradition in the Shetland Islands that Christian preachers there once included this appeal to the Almighty in their prayers, ”Lord, if it be thy holy will to send shipwrecks, do not forget our island.”

Well, times have changed and these days it’s not your Mama’s beachcombing.

Not only do we have “Dr. Beach”, “Dr. Beachcomb” and pricey expeditions that promise “full immersion” within “the beachcombing experience”, we have the annual International Beachcombing Conference, beachcombing autobiographies and self-help beachcombing books that “explore self-being” while bringing a “simplified perspective to beachcombing.” In other words, BEACHCOMBING, INC. (made up of a variety of shamans, neuroconservationists and born-again eco-environmentalists who desperately need copy for their next book or mixed media presentation) is now selling a mixed bag of beachcombing gear and amazing adventures in unadulterated nature.
Beachcombing is really not a tough sell for the corporate beachcomber because it’s hard to argue with the joy beachcombing brings us.  A simple walk surrounded by the beautiful backdrop of shifting sand and shimmering surf, accompanied by the sounds of rolling waves and shrieking shorebirds, somehow has the magical ability to transform us, to bring us deep contentment and to return us to memories of our childhood and our families. In fact, there’s a great deal of scientific curiosity concerning exactly why the sea has this ability to suddenly bring us deep contentment. In the midst of the stress of work, smart phones and deadlines, we often find ourselves daydreaming about our beachcomber life and find ourselves revisiting our excursions in our imagination.

On just about any beach on Earth, beachcombing takes you through some really cool nature but Bay County beachcombing has an added bonus that makes it unique to all of North America. These Gulf front beaches are absolutely, astonishingly beautiful. When clear water comes in with the tide, it doesn’t take a trained eye to see the spectacular display of color produced by sunlight upon the exceeding whiteness of the sandy bottom. Any painter of landscapes who can concoct the right combination of pigment and is able to get just some of that beauty down on canvas, deserves to charge a good price for their work. 

From the intersection of Highway 98 and Florida Road 386 in Mexico Beach on the east to the Walton County line in Inlet Beach on the west, Bay County is blessed with over 40 miles of cherished Gulf-front beaches. Even though Bay County is only 100 years old, accurate maps of the area have been available for almost 250 years. During this time the sea has pounded and flattened this strand of sand many times and over the years, geographical terms like St. Andrews Island (1766), Crooked Island (1827), Sand Island (1827), Hummock Island (1827) and Hurricane Island (1855) have come and gone. This is not the place for a discussion about wave erosion and marine geology but, suffice it to say, the form and extent of the sandy barrier between the bay and the Gulf have changed over the years; in fact, there are no true barrier islands in Bay County anymore, only peninsulas. Even with all this geographical alteration, high rise condominium construction and urban beach, much of Bay County’s shoreline remains in the same natural state it was when the Spanish found it: a quartz white sandy beach with a few scrubby weeds in the dunes.

It’s hard to believe that beachcombing would become a potentially criminal activity but that’s exactly what we have in our present day. Everyone knows there’s always been rules and regulations at the beach like “no dogs”,  “no glass containers” or “walking on sand dunes or sea oats prohibited”, but now we have the threat of  “no shell collecting allowed” or barriers that keep people from walking on the beach such as closing walkways that go through the dunes to the beach. The recent events pertaining to the locked beach walkways at Bid-A-Wee are not the first time this conflict between the private and public has occurred on our beaches. Bay County has seen the horrific results that can occur when private property owners become a barrier between the public and the beach. In the summer of 1930, the owner of Long Beach Resort decided a great way to limit access to this treasured and limited public resource was to pistol whip a man the owner claimed was trespassing “on property of the beach “ when the man decided to relax in the sand just west of the resort. While his entire family stood by in shock, the “trespasser” not only was struck against the head repeatedly with a pistol by the Long Beach owner but was also kicked repeatedly in the groin. This assault resulted in permanent brain damage and impotence in the “perpetrator” and he ended up having to be institutionalized in Chattahoochee but not before May 23, 1931, when someone walked up to the owner of Long Beach Resort as he was getting out of his car on Highway 98 near St. Andrews and sent him to an early grave with a load of buckshot in the face.

The bad arrests on Shell Island during the summer of 2006 were amicably resolved but they exposed the erosion of legal principles as old as the common law itself but you know something’s happening to our right to walk on the beach in the United States when an agency like the Hawaii Division of Aquatic Resources issues a standing prohibition that “denies the removal of any natural artifacts from the public beaches of Hawaii.” Could this type of regulation be in some Bay County beach’s future?  For beachcombers, the hunt for shells, driftwood and artifacts is as ingrained within us as our own DNA so we bristle when we are permitted to pick up unoccupied shells but not allowed to take driftwood or sea glass. The marine resource enforcement bureaucrats who come up with all this “look but don’t touch” mumbo jumbo, are afraid we might remove an important clue from some ancient shipwreck blown to shore. So next time you find a gold coin on the beach fronting Spanish Shanty Cove, feel free to photograph it but make sure you leave it in the sand the same way as you found it. Always remember that touching anything on the beach could cause terrible erosion or destroy the natural oceanfront camouflage so important to insects and shorebirds.

Falling in love again with taking a stroll down a lonely beach may be the perfect way for each of us to take control of our cluttered lives. In May of 2013, Cruzan Rum took the “beachcomber lifestyle” as the state of mind and the way of life they want to brand onto their rum. In their television commercial, the viewer finds himself adrift within the towering waves of a stormy sea and hears the announcer say, “You are drowning. You are literally drowning in a figurative sea of busyness. When…wait! Is that?” The viewer suddenly sees an island on the screen and hears a greeting from a voice with a strange accent, ”Welcome! Welcome to the Island of Don’t Hurry where life never moves too fast and Cruzan Rum flows freely. For two hundred and fifty years our pastime has been ‘passing time.’ Join us. Come leave your hurried life behind.”

After introducing you to the National Bird, a rapping parrot who “can fly but chooses not to” and showing a domesticated tortoise hauling a cart of rum on the beach, the announcer gives you a preview of the national sports of “Zero K Runs” and “Sleep Yoga” along with advertisements for “Monkey Massages”. Then the announcer ends the ad with the words, “Slow down and enjoy the Don’t Hurry lifestyle wherever you may find it. When you hurry through life, you just get to the end faster.”

There’s is a tendency to underestimate our experiences walking the beach. How much is “pretty” worth to you? The value to the elderly or infirm of their entire life’s catalogue of beach scene memories has not been accurately calculated but a nice testable hypothesis would be whether pleasant memories at the beach are a great predictor of late-late-late life satisfaction.  Stay tuned…


       #11   City Pier Beach – This spot might have made Number 11 on our list but this beach is definitely Number 1 when it comes to memories for the Baby Boomers. This was the location of the old Wayside Park and the site of countless summer picnics and winter walks on the beach for families in the 1950s and 60s.

#10   S. Rick Seltzer Park Beach on Thomas Drive – A walk in either direction introduces you to the Grand Lagoon Peninsula and will lead one to excellent venues where you can take a break from your travels, relax at a bar overlooking the beach and enjoy the eye candy.

         #9 County Pier Beach – A two-mile hike east of here will take you along an urban beach under the shadows of towering condominiums. This stretch was once the center of all activity on PCB. Today there are few memories of the “Good Old Days” still standing but Goofy Golf located across from the pier has stood the test of time for almost 60 years. Its theme could also stand for Bay County’s beaches: “This is the Magic World, where the ages of time abide in a garden of serenity, with perpetual peace and harmony.”

         #8   Bid-A-Wee Beach- The locked iron gates on the walkways are an ugly nuisance but the 1600 feet of unoccupied beaches and dunes have delighted the entire public since the beginning of time and have been dedicated “for Park Purposes” since 1938.

         #7    Laguna Beach- West of the Panama City Beach City Limits, this 7/10 mile of dunes and beach is the first on our list that takes us completely away from the tourist mayhem and traffic gridlock so choose this beach or one of the next six when you are a little cantankerous and having problems “staying Zen.”

          #6     Sunnyside/Santa Monica Beach- Put ten toes in the sand and head in either direction. The cares of the world are waiting to left behind.

         #5    Mexico Beach- The seventeen miles of beaches between Pinnacle Port and Moonspinner on the west side of the Bay County seem like they’re light years away when you park your car next to this roadside slice of paradise located next to the Gulf County line and with the lack of commercial development, you’ll feel like you just stepped back into the “Old Florida.”

         #4    St. Andrews State Park Beach- Gorgeous beaches, the jetties and the gateway to Shell Island but it does have one little disadvantage: an admission charge and the place doesn’t open until 8 o’clock in the morning and closes at dusk. Annual entrance passes can be purchased each year for $60 but they are only good for you and your car. Your passengers will be charged two bucks a head.

         #3     Phillips Inlet Beach- You may walk to this beach through Camp Helen State Park and the entrance fee is a little lower than the one at St. Andrews. An alternative is to drive down Highway 98 a bit and park at the Inlet Beach Access parking spaces just across the Walton County line at the end of Orange Street. The beach is only a hundred yards away and the walk from there to Phillips Inlet is one of the most beautiful in all of North America.

         #2     East Crooked Island Beach- This a U.S. Air Force property but with no gates and no need for paperwork. Be prepared to show an ID and if you walk over three miles west down this pristine, unoccupied beach, you might get turned back when they launch one of those drones out into the Gulf.

         #1     Shell Island- Bay County’s sparkling jewel shimmering in its tranquil, watery seclusion. This subtropical paradise is home to the northern limit of the wild sabal palm tree and even though it can now be accessed by land via Tyndall, it is still functionally an island. Tyndall’s portion is called Tyndall Beach and you can visit it if you have the right kind of paperwork with the Air Force. Leave only footprints. Only trash litters.

This article was published in the MAY-JUNE 2013 issue of PANAMA CITY LIVING MAGAZINE Volume 8 ~ Issue 3

“Don’t know that I will but until I can find one, a girl who’ll stay and won’t play games behind me.
I’ll be what I am: a solitary man, SOLITARY MAN.”
-Neil Diamond

One day in 1954, Claude Willoughby, hired in ’49 as the first manager of St. Andrews State Park, stopped by a ramshackle squatter’s cabin built beside the shimmering blue green waters of Grand Lagoon to check on the condition of the tenant and found the old man unconscious and sprawled out on the floor. Later that same day, the state park’s most legendary resident passed away at a local Panama City hospital; so ended the strange intriguing nautical life of Bay County’s Nordic version of Robinson Crusoe, Theodore Tollofsen.

By ’54, Theodore, better known as Teddy, had lived the primitive solitary life of a castaway for at least 25 years on a spit of sand that is today occupied by one of the most popular state parks in Florida, attracting almost a million visitors each year. It certainly wasn’t so crowded when Teddy first showed up, shipwrecked on Grand Lagoon after a 1929 hurricane. Eighty four years ago, there were no jetties, no full service marinas, no Thomas Drive, no close neighbors and although Teddy’s part of Grand Lagoon was only four miles across the bay south of St. Andrews, it was centuries away from the running water, electricity, telephones and city sidewalks of Panama City.

There are a couple of stories about how Teddy and his boat ended up wrecked on the southern shore of Grand Lagoon but one fact is certainly known: Teddy blamed himself for the demise of his beloved vessel and to the day he died he would affectionately pat the decaying wreckage of his boat and, in his heavy Scandinavian accent, explain to visitors,”The boat wrecked here and so we’ve stayed together.”

During the months before his death, Teddy must have had a foreshadowing of things to come. He’d begun selling some of his possessions to visitors and had told Willoughby about where to find the money he’d stashed in his shack in case he passed away. Teddy wanted the money to be used for the final expenses associated with his burial.

Toward the end of his life vandals and burglars had become occasional visitors to Teddy’s cabin. The thieves were probably attracted by the nearby abandoned army post at the jetties that had manned a gun battery at the jetties during WWII to guard Panama City Inlet. Even with the improvements made by the army during the war, the jetties area was still not very accessible by land and a four wheel drive vehicle was necessary to traverse the six miles of dunes that separated the area from Highway 98. Nevertheless, the army barracks were vandalized and Teddy’s cabin had been plundered. Teddy believed that a box containing his 1911 U.S. citizenship papers and his U.S. Navy discharge papers from WWI had been stolen during one of the crimes. For this reason, Teddy never received any form of a pension during his lifetime.

After Teddy’s death Willoughby found the money in the shack Teddy had told him to use for burial expenses along with a box containing all the personal papers that Teddy believed to have been stolen. Willoughby used the money from the shack along with donations to give Teddy a proper burial. The city donated a plot in Greenwood Cemetery and as many as 100 attended Teddy’s funeral, including some Tallahassee dignitaries. One story goes that Teddy’s grave was at first marked with ballast stones from a foreign vessel yet another goes that the ballast rocks came from the wreckage of the beloved boat which first brought the Norwegian to the watery seclusion of Grand Lagoon. In the present day, the second story seems so much more appropriate as one visits Teddy’s grave and sees ballast stones set in the concrete around his burial vault.

Because of the friendship Willoughby had established with Teddy, visitors to St. Andrews State Park’s new Environmental Interpretive Center can catch a glimpse of the little estate on Grand Lagoon that sustained Teddy for a quarter century. It was Willoughby’s job to demolish Teddy’s dwelling and outbuildings and to dispose of his possessions. This wonderful exhibit of a few of Teddy’s tools and personal items along with photographs donated by Willoughby provides us with a window into Theodore Tollofsen’s life as a castaway.

Norwegian fishermen are world famous for building  cabins and cottages on the beaches of northern European islands to house themselves during the summer fishing season. For Teddy a winter on Grand Lagoon was probably the equivalent to a summer near the Arctic Circle so Teddy, who ran away to sea at the age of 14, utilized his nautical experience in the construction of his little home on the lagoon. Not only were Norwegians at the end of the 19th century the most desired deckhands on the world’s sailing ships but they were also famed on the Gulf Coast as wreckers and salvagers so it was understandable that the shutters on Teddy’s cabin would be zinc plated skylight hinges retrieved at low tide from some wreck in the Old Pass. The inside of Teddy’s cabin contained so many nautical items that you felt like you’d just climbed below deck into the captain’s quarters. A wood cook stove was the centerpiece of this Spartan affair with a built in table and bunk. Nine lanterns of various designs hung, stood or rested around the small room along with a battery powered radio Teddy used to hear the news and weather of the day. The inside of Teddy’s cabin contained so many nautical items that it looked like he’d raided a maritime museum. The ornately carved nameplate of the TECUMSEH crowned one window. The Tecumseh was built in Gloucester, Mass. In 1911 and sank in the Old Pass at Land’s End, possibly in the same hurricane that wrecked Teddy’s boat in ’29.

Teddy’s resourcefulness with the driftwood and the wrecked lumber that came in on the tides of the Grand Lagoon Peninsula was also evident in the small structures that surrounded his cabin. From his lumberyard, which included everything from pieces of plywood to massive 10 inch by 10 inch pilings, Teddy constructed a small pier on the lagoon with a fish cleaning house. A single concrete block served as the step off his front porch and salvaged lumber was used to build a smokehouse, a well cover, privy, storage shed, chicken coop and “South Florida,” a raised roofed sleeping platform without walls built about three feet above the dunes behind Teddy’s cabin in order to take advantage of the summer breezes and avoid the season’s heat and mosquitos. Keeping with the nautical theme, Teddy’s hen house was covered with tarred cotton fish net.

In addition to the heat of the summer, the cold of winter and the sting of mosquitos, Teddy also had to adapt to less that crystal clear drinking water. He had hand drilled a twenty foot deep well through layers of sand, muck, shell, clay and hardpan to get to a stream of dark brown, tannic acid stained water. Willoughby told a story about how Teddy’s well water was so brown that Teddy would often forget to drop in tea leaves when he brewed his “tea.”

For refrigeration Teddy dug a root cellar in order provide a cool space to store his chicken’s eggs. In addition to eggs, Teddy’s breakfast often included oatmeal and sea greens. Sea greens are green leafy algae of the genus Ulva that grows on the rocks of the jetties and is exposed at low tide each day.  Teddy thrived on the abundance of seafood and his smokehouse was filled with split mullet and maybe a ham or two from one of the wild pigs that inhabited the Grand Lagoon Peninsula at that time.

Teddy was reclusive and lacked any close neighbors but he still needed money so at least once a week he’d make his way into town, either by rowing or by motoring his small boat across the bay and walked the streets of St. Andrews peddling the fresh flounder he’d gigged the night before or searching for odd jobs such as repairing nets or rigging boats in the marina. Teddy may have turned his back on society but he certainly didn’t turn his back on the dollar. He needed cash, not for liquor, he claimed to have given up drinking in Mobile in 1907, “I quit drinking in Mobile after I figured I’d been a fool long enough.”; nor for tobacco. Teddy never picked up that bad habit but he did need cash for canned milk, oatmeal, grits, sugar, flour and tea as well as for radio batteries, chicken feed, lamp oil and outboard motor fuel.

Teddy apparently had little need for human companionship in his sandy solitude but he did have a soft spot in his heart for animals. He kept cats and he had his yard birds and he told Willoughby a story about raising a pet hog. After saving the little pig from drowning in shallow water near Shell Island, Teddy placed the little porker in his boat and took it home to raise.  Within a year the pig had become Teddy’s constant companion and had acquired a love of fishing. The moment Teddy picked up his cast net or his homemade rod and rusty reel, the pig clamored into the boat, positioning himself in the bow and placing his front hooves up on the gunnels, ready for a bumpy ride on the bay. Things rocked along well for about a year but by then the pig had grown so large that he’d almost sink the bow of the boat and out of necessity Teddy passed his pet hog along to a fellow Norwegian in St. Andrews. Stories vary on whether Teddy’s pig ended up on the dinner table or lived out his days in the neighborhoods around Beck Avenue.

So how does one come about to choose such a strange lifestyle? Was Teddy’s irrational attachment to the rotting wreckage of his old boat enough to explain a quarter century of self-sustained isolation?  Could Teddy have been mentally handicapped? He certainly had the opportunity to experience neurological damage. On at least two occasions during his career as a deckhand he’d been poisoned into unconsciousness before being shanghaied. He’d been struck by lightning on three occasions: once in South Dakota; once on board a fishing schooner in the Gulf; and once on Grand Lagoon near his little shack.

All of these things are clues to why Teddy chose the life of a rugged individualist but Teddy’s secret may exist in a mysterious photo Willoughby found after Tollofsen’s death in the long lost box containing Teddy’s personal papers. Teddy claimed he’d always lived a solitary life and had never married but Willoughby found a photograph of a bride and groom in the box and the picture of the groom bears a remarkable resemblance to what Teddy may have looked like before he became a shaggy gray headed and weather beaten old man. Could Teddy’s story be another Norse legend of the sea, one that includes one last dangerous voyage that left not a widowed mother and lost children but a lost love that asks the haunting, eternal question: “Is it better to have loved and lost or never to have loved at all?”

But in summing up the strange life of Theodore Tollofsen, perhaps the author of the 1950 article about Teddy in the Florida Parks Service magazine describes best how Teddy’s self-sufficiency and independence turned his life into a legend that lives on until this very day:
“For my money he’s a memorial to the frontiersman that has made our country the greatest in the world today, living proof that an energetic person can get his just share of fish and grits come hell or high water.”

Information for this article came from Jeannie Weller Cooper’s PANAMA CITY BEACH: TALES FROM THE WORLD’S MOST BEAUTIFUL BEACHES, James Burgess’ SAND IN MY SHOES, and page 26, February 23, 1975 Panama City News Herald article entitled, TEDDY THE HERMIT. 

This article was published in the MARCH-APRIL 2013 issue of PANAMA CITY LIVING MAGAZINE, Volume 8 ~ Issue 2

 Yellow Daffodils and Purple Japanese Magnolia Blossoms!

King James Bible (Cambridge Ed.)
 Ecclesiastes 3:1
 To every thing there is a season, and a time to every purpose under the heaven.

  Much of Panama City has changed over the past sixty years. An international airport, modern highways, shopping centers and high rises have replaced much of what was almost a wilderness just after WWII. Change has been a certainty and our adaptation to change a necessity but some things haven't changed. The sun has its cycle, the moon its phases and the tides ebb and flow and in the month of March, the sun's warmth renews our world once more while the cobia move west just off Panama City Beach's shoreline along their ancient migratory path. As I write this column in the middle of January, most cobia are feeding in deep waters south of Panama City but in the next few days an ancient genetic program will trigger a secret and unique navigational system within each of these fish and the cobia will activate some sort of unknown compass needle to lead them through their spring spawning migration to breeding grounds in the Northern Gulf off of the Mississippi River delta. The sun passing over the equator on the first day of spring; the full moon on March 27th; the gradual warming of Gulf waters; all of these factors probably put the cobia on its path to migration but regardless of why they begin their journey, the maritime trail of the cobia leads through the water just off Panama City's shoreline and somewhere, somehow, exactly the same factors that lead the cobia to our beaches trigger the detonation of a DNA timebomb within each one of us and we drop everything we're doing and HEAD FOR THE BEACHES!

"It started long ago in the Garden of Eden 

When Adam said to Eve, baby, you're for me

So come on baby let's start today, 

come on baby let's play

The game of love" 
lyrics to THE GAME OF LOVE by Wayne Fontana and the Mindbenders 

Everyone has their priorities. College students need to study hard for an exam for that business course called HOW TO SPEND ALL MY PARENT'S MONEY. The family man worries about the possibility of his mother-in-law moving into his house and staying forever. It's spring. The IRS wants to have a talk with you. Your yard already needs mowing. Your kid's failing math. The house needs painting. The air conditioning is on the blink and it's gonna get hot soon. The bills are overdue and the credit card's cancelled. The human race is facing runaway inflation, third world starvation and nuclear terrorism. Another "useless jobs" bill is being passed in Washington, D.C. and to think you could hardly wait to become a grown up but locked within your DNA is an innate impulse that explodes within you at this time of the year and you decide just to leave your troubles behind. You pull out all the  beach stuff you stored before Thanksgiving and head across AMNESIA BRIDGE for another new year's adventures at the beach. It's the siren song of the surf, the salt and the sand that draws you back in a seasonal ritual. 

Some of you might be wondering where AMNESIA BRIDGE is located in the Panama City area but remember that before the advertising slogan, "What happens in Vegas, stays in Vegas," folks have crossed Hathaway Bridge and suddenly lost their memory of the 9 to 5 Suburbatory they just left and 48 or 72 hours later they go back to the same Suburbatory across the same bridge, automatically erasing all the files pertaining to what just recently occurred in Panama City Beach. 

Not only does this innate and cherished seasonal urge to merge at the beach occur in the genus species Homo sapiens who are natives and locals from Panama City but it also occurs in our neighbors to the north and the month of March begins a not so ancient migration south by many members of our own species who live as far as 150 miles north of Bay County. It is quite true that no one truly understands what kinds of unique navigational systems humans may have but it may be argued that just about everybody raised in an area as far north of Bay County as Greenville, Alabama and as far east as Albany, Georgia are imprinted with a homing instinct that works like clockwork. 


Perhaps you remember the movie CLOSE ENCOUNTERS OF THE THIRD KIND. It may be contended that like the characters in the film, those raised in Southeast Alabama and Southwest Georgia have cultural influences from childhood that have pre-programmed each and every one of them, imprinting them with a homing instinct to return to the Florida Panhandle when March arrives.

Many tax dollars have been spent to study the migratory corridors utilized by the cobia as they move west through the gully between the first sand bar and Panama City's beaches but little has been spent to learn about the spring migration of our own species back to the panhandle. Could it be possible that we could reawaken the migratory spirit within "best and brightest" of these springtime voyagers to the Panhandle and channel them this way so that Panama City Beach becomes their destination of choice each spring?

The origins of the spring migration to Panama City by humans is cloaked in mystery, however, as far as we know, it can only be traced back about 60 years. Harvey H. ("Hardy") Jackson, Eminent Scholar in History at Jacksonville State University and a columnist and editorial writer at The Anniston Star, discovered an interesting 1960 Mobile Press-Register article that is an important document confirming that the onset of March's migration of our neighboring teenage "Goths and Vandals" from the north began as early as 1954.

Feb. 17, 1960, edition of the Mobile Press-Register, under the heading “News from Florida.” Headlined “Liquor Restriction,” it read:

“Panama City (Special) — The sale of beer and alcoholic beverages will be curtailed this year at three beach municipalities during the Alabama Education Association days March 15-20.
Panama City Beach Mayor Roy Martin, Long Beach Mayor J.E. Churchwell and
Edgewater Beach Mayor M.C. Buckley have joined in the move to ban the sale during the time several hundred Alabama teenagers are here at the beaches.This will mark the sixth consecutive year when sale of these beverages will be prohibited during the meeting time.”

In researching the veracity of this 1960 newspaper clipping, Professor Jackson interrogated several Bay Countians who lived through many A.E.A. Holidays from the Fifties and Sixties. They concluded that this news article couldn't be completely true and even if it was true, it wouldn't matter because,"Those kids could find cold beer in Saudi Arabia."

This teenage need for fake IDs during the month of March presents unique challenges for any Panama City Beach tourism development executive because it only takes one viral video of  Bluto yelling "Go Bulldogs" while urinating off of a PCB balcony to "negatively impact our brand."

Regardless, the month of April will get here soon enough and the job of any self respecting tourism executive is to effectively overcome all obstacles so the challenge is clear. We have a mandate to scientifically identify the SPRING BREAK MIGRATORY PATTERNS of our neighbors to the North and help them get in touch with their "homing instinct for the beach" so they can experience the joy of expectation which occurs when you know that within a matter of less than three hours, you'll have left all your cares behind and that your very own ten toes will soon be in the sand and you'll be looking south over the gorgeous Gulf of Mexico saying to yourself," MAN, I AM SO GLAD TO BE BACK AT PANAMA CITY BEACH!

The following article was published in the JANUARY-FEBRUARY 2013 issue of PANAMA CITY LIVING MAGAZINE, Volume 8 ~ Issue 1

by Robert Register

One afternoon after school my Daddy came home early from work and asked me this question,
"Bob, how'd you like to go to the picture show with me tonight?"

"Yes,sir, Daddy!" I exclaimed.

"Well, get your toothbrush. Tell Mommy to pack you some warm clothes and bring some books and toys to keep you busy."

"To go to the picture show?" I asked.

"We're going to the Martin Theatre in Panama City, son."

"Hot dog! So we're not coming home tonight?"

"No, Bob, we'll be staying at the Dixie Sherman Hotel in downtown Panama City tonight."

"What about school tomorrow?"

"Tell Ms. Odum you were sick."

"Daddy, won't that be telling a story?"

"You're sick, aren't you?"

"No, sir."

"Aw, I bet you're sick. Sick of school."

"Oh boy!" I ran down the hall screaming, "Mommy, Mommy, Daddy's taking me to the beach!"

There is no doubt in my mind that on that winter afternoon in 1958 I was the happiest eight year old boy in Alabama. Even after over 50 years, the memories are so sweet that they bring tears of joy to my eyes. My most vivid childhood memories are of my father, Earl Register. He was loud and he was strong and he loved his little boy. He'll always be my best buddy. Neither time nor the unspeakable tragedy of his death, nor anything else can take that man's love away from me.

That is my inheritance. (Thank you, Daddy, I love you.)

When it came to going to the beach, it didn't take me long to pack my satchel.
Mommy took care of my clothing and I gathered up Dr. Zim's Insect Book,
my color crayons, my tablet and my shovel.

I've always been ready to get sand in my shoes!

My mother, Kate, hugged my neck in the driveway and told me to "be good" and next thing you know we're heading for Panama City. Our house in Dothan was on Gaines Street and it was located one door down from the intersection with South Oates which was U.S. 231 South, the Panama City Highway. Being eight-years old, I was very concerned about getting to the beach as quickly as possible so I was a little worried when Daddy hung a quick left onto the Hodgesville Highway.

"Hey, Daddy. Where are we going?"

"To P.C., son. Why?"

"But this ain't the road to Panama City."

"What have I told you about saying the word 'ain't'?"

"I'm sorry. But this isn't the way to Panama City."

"Sure it is. Hodgesville is due south of town and from there we can cut over to Graceville or maybe Campbellton or maybe even Grangerburg."

"Daddy, why do you always go a different way every time you go somewhere? You even do it when we drive over to Grandma's house and it's just across town."

"Bob, I'm not like a cow. I don't go down the same trail back to the barn every evening."

"I just don't want us to be late. What time is it, anyway?"

"Confucius say, 'He who work by the hands of a clock will always be a hand.' "

Daddy had already handed me a strongly worded explanation of that little saying before, so I decided to climb over into the back seat of the company car and take a nap.

The next thing I knew Daddy was yelling, "Wake up, Bob. We're about to cross the Lynn Haven Bridge!"

I loved Lynn Haven with its pink houses and views of North Bay.

"Are we stopping by Aunt Estelle's house?" I asked.

"Nope. We're heading straight for downtown. We'll check in and then eat supper at Angelo's."

To this day, I always think of Daddy's Aunt Estelle whenever I eat fried scallops. That woman could cook the steam out of a mess of scallops. Every time we went to Aunt Estelle's house in Lynn Haven, she fried scallops. If she didn't have any, she'd send out for some.

The last time I saw Aunt Estelle was in the late 70s at the insane asylum at Chattahoochee.
Old age had caught up with her and she didn't know where she was from the man in the moon, but she remembered me though. She told me,"Bob, let me go get out of these clothes and put on my apron and I'll fry you up some scallops." That's the last thing Aunt Estelle said to me as the nurse led her back to the ward.

I never saw her again.

Daddy and I checked into a great room on the top floor of the Dixie Sherman.
That hotel was Panama City's tallest building and it wasn't a skyscraper but as far as Bob Register was concerned, we had a penthouse suite in the Empire State Building.

image courtesy ofhttp://www.beaconlearningcenter.com/weblessons/bayhistory/bhis29.htm

I turned on the TV and opened the curtains so I could see the sun going down over St. Andrews Bay.

"Get away from that window and get ready for supper, son. Go wash your face and hands. We're going to Angelo's."

It didn't take me long to follow directions. I laced up my paratrooper's boots and I was ready for action. Everything we needed was right there around the block from the Dixie Sherman. Restaurants, movie theatres, newstands, soda fountains- downtown Panama City had it all.

Soon we were seated at a shiny formica table beside a plate glass window inside Angelo's Steak Pit. We watched the traffic and the people on the sidewalk as we waited for our steaks. Angelo Butchikas was the owner and he knew Daddy real well because Panama City was on Earl's territory route with Goodrich. My Daddy was one of Mr. Angelo's favorite customers.

When we were through eating, Mr. Angelo came to our table. He treated us like we were royalty. I really liked him a lot.

"How was your steak, Bob?" he asked.

"Real good, Mr. Angelo," I replied.

"I noticed that you didn't touch your black olives."

"I eat green olives, but I don't like black olives."

"Please, Bob, try one of these," said Mr. Angelo.

"Yes, sir."

I tried one of Mr. Angelo's ripe olives. It tasted real strong but it went down all right. Just like eating fried bay scallops reminds me of Aunt Estelle, black olives always remind me of the nice man who had the great steak house in downtown Panama City, Angelo Butchikas.
& many times, when I try something new, I think of Mr. Angelo and his winning smile.

After Daddy paid our check, we walked down Harrison Avenue to the Martin Theatre. We took our seats and sat down to watch Burt Lancaster and Kirk Douglas in what was probably the most exciting Western filmed up to that time, "Gunfight at the O.K. Corral."

image courtesy ofhttp://www.panamacitydowntown.com/play.php

image courtesy of http://www.martintheatre.com/history.html

It may have been a great movie but it was too long for this little eight-year old from Dothan. I fell asleep but I didn't miss the good part. All that gunfire at the end woke me up so even though I felt guilty and disappointed for falling asleep and missing the movie, I was sure happy about seeing that gunfight at the end.

When I woke up in the morning, Daddy had already gone to work. The night before he'd told me not to worry, that he would leave early and not wake me up. He told me to hang around the room, draw and color and watch TV so I did. I stared out the window at the beautiful bay. I watched a little TV. I drew insects out of my Dr. Zim book and colored cartoons I copied out of the News-Herald. Before noon Daddy was back and we were checking out of the hotel.

Now came the good part. We were going to Panama City Beach!

It was raining cats and dogs plus it was freezing but that didn't matter to us. We were heading for the beach! As we drove over Hathaway Bridge the weather began to break and the rain slacked up a little, but it was still bitter cold. I had on a couple of sweaters, my windbreaker and my toboggan. [Yankees call them "stocking caps"]

Panama City Beach was a ghost town. Nothing was open except a little grocery store across from Wayside Park. There were no cars on Front Beach Road. No lights were on in any of the motels or in any of the other businesses and not a soul was down toward the Y at the Wayside Park. We had the beach to ourselves. Miles and miles of snow-white dunes & crashing waves abandoned for Bob & Earl's day at the beach.

At Wayside Park, I jumped out of the car and ran straight for the sand dunes. The sand around the concrete foundations for the picnic tables were riddled with ghost crab dens and I immediately began to terrorize those little critters. Down by the water we found plenty of big cockle shells that the storm had washed up on the beach. When we got tired of picking up shells, Daddy chased me down the beach so far that I collapsed in the sand from fatigue. We laughed and walked back to the picnic tables to seek shelter from a fresh rain cloud blowing in from the Gulf.

We sat silently on top of the picnic table & watched the storm come in.

Daddy said, "Son, God knows this is the prettiest beach on the face of the Earth."

"Well, Daddy, you ought to know. You saw lots of different beaches during the war."

"Some of the best. The islands of the Caribbean, the coast of Brazil, North Africa, the islands of the Mediterranean, the French Riviera, Corsica, Sardinia, Sicily and the Adriatic Coast.
But I still like Panama City best."

Years later, when I was first out of college, I went back to Panama City Beach for a weekend with our family. Daddy was a little mad at me because I'd showed up a day late(blame Tuscaloosa for that), but he forgave me.
(He always forgave us children, but he never forgot.)

At night, Daddy and I buried a light pole in the sand at the edge of the surf behind the Admiral Imperial. This light attracted skates & rays to the shore and we celebrated the excitement of resting our lawn chairs in sting-ray infested waters by toasting each other.

We were having a lot of fun when Daddy made a very serious statement.

He said,"Bob, you've always obeyed me with the exception of three times.

I was scared to death.

Believe it or not, I was speechless. (quite an accomplishment for someone who's Cloverdale neighborhood nickname was "LUNGZZZ" )"Three times you went against my advice & each time you were right."

"I'm sorry, Daddy, but what times are you talking about?"

"Three times. When you changed your major;
when you dropped out of ROTC;
& when you let your hair grow out.
Three times you went against me and every time you were right.
I was wrong."

OK!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!I had no idea this would be my last conversation with my father but I'm glad it happened at the beach.

Panama City Beach always brings back memories of my Daddy.

For that reason alone,
Bay County, Florida,